All theses are available at Carleton University Research Virtual Environment, CURVE.
Kaitlyn Benson, “Making Motoring American: The Integration of the Working Class in Automobile Film Advertising of the 1930s” (2015).
Supervisors: James Opp and Andrew Johnston.
- Kaitlyn Benson Abstract
This thesis examines a selection of automobile film advertisements from 1930 to America’s formal declaration of war in 1941 as a means of analyzing the cultural narrative associated with automobile promotion throughout the Great Depression. The films depict the white, working-class male as the model driver and the automobile as a bastion of safety, as well as the key to a prosperous economy. While this shift in the representation of the automobile and its driver can be attributed in part to the reported saturation of the automobile market through the latter part of the 1920s and the economic uncertainty of the 1930s, semiotic analysis of the films indicates that the change was more than an effort to attract prospective consumers. Rather, the films’ idealization of the working class was tailored to present a narrative of motoring that supported automakers and industrial capitalism in a period when both were being challenged.
- Elise Bigley Abstract
In May of 1940, a wartime British government arrested those deemed “enemy aliens” and transferred them to safe areas of the country. Over 2000 of these “enemy aliens” were Jewish German and Austrian men. On June 29, 1940, the first group of Jewish refugees was sent to internment camps in Canada. This thesis explores three different examples of memory and community to illustrate the development of the internees’ search for meaning during and post-internment. Artwork created in the camps, a series of letters between ex-internees, and several issues of the Ex-Internees Newsletter are the focus of this study. Social network analysis tools are used to visualize the post-internment internee network. By looking at diverse aspects of the internment narrative, this thesis provides a unique lens into the conversation on memory and history.
Kathryn Boschmann, “Being Irish on the Prairies: Repertoire, performance, and environment in oral history narratives of Winnipeg Irish Canadians” (2015).
Supervisors: Joanna Dean and Bruce Elliott.
- Kathryn Boschmann Abstract
This thesis applies Diana Taylor’s concept of repertoire to oral history interviews with ten first generation Irish Canadians living in Winnipeg who emigrated between 1957 and 2012. It argues that traditional performances, such as music and dance, have acquired a provenance with particular histories. This has made them both meaningful and politically contentious expressions of Irish identity. Memory tensions emerged when the performances were integrated into a new repertoire in Canada. Taylor’s concept is modified and applied to embodied encounters with landscape and weather. As experiences of a new place are incorporated into a spatial repertoire, they become infused with emotional significance, and emigrants’ stories about visiting Ireland, surviving Manitoban winters, or driving across flat prairie spaces, communicate feelings of displacement and belonging. Accompanying this thesis is a website which further explores emotional memories in these interviews through an audio exhibit (www.beingirishontheprairies.ca).
Nancy Ann Carvell, “A People Apart: New Brunswick Acadians, Conscription, and the Second World War.” (2019)
Supervisor: Norman Hillmer
- Nancy Ann Carvell Abstract
During the Second World War, the Mackenzie King government faced two conscription crises, in 1942 and 1944, which divided Canadians along linguistic lines. This is the first academic history to examine the contributions of New Brunswick Acadians to the war effort, and their response to the conscription crises of 1942 and 1944. As a result of their separate identity and historical experiences, the response of Acadians in New Brunswick differed from that of other French Canadians and the anglophone majority. Acadians prided themselves on their participation and support for the war effort and opposed any attempts by anglophones to accuse them of shirking their duty. For them, opposition to conscription and support of the war effort coexisted; as a minority in an anglophone majority province, their opposition was more nuanced than that of Quebec.
Edith Elizabeth Cherrett, “Emotional Rhetoric in Aelfric’s Letter to the Monks of Eynsham.” (2019)
Supervisor: Marc Saurette
- Edith Elizabeth Cherrett Abstract
The Epistola Alfrici de consuetudine monachorum (Ælfric’s Letter to the Monks of Eynsham) is a monastic customary written in the form of a letter in 1005 CE by Ælfric, a key figure in the Anglo-Saxon Benedictine sphere. Ælfric’s Letter displays a powerful rhetorical strategy, by which Ælfric seeks to influence the emotional community of Anglo-Saxon monasticism in the eleventh century. This thesis explores his rhetorical use of pathos, ethos, and logos in the Letter to show that the layers to Aelfric’s seemingly bland injunctions persuaded the reader, and displayed the emotional community he envisioned for Eynsham. I also argue that while Ælfric’s audience was primarily the monks of Eynsham, the intended audience for this customary included a broader readership of reform-minded monks. The rhetoric presented in the Letter would have resonated with Ælfric’s colleagues from his formative years at Winchester Abbey.
- Dahay Daniel Abstract
This thesis explores a dark chapter in Ethiopia’s recent history. In 1974, student-led demonstrations overthrew the long-reigning Emperor Haile Selassie; however, the lack of political organization allowed a small group of military men to seize power. The military regime, known as the Provisional Administrative Military Council, or Derg, completely transformed Ethiopian life. Religious, traditional, and social gatherings were fundamental to Ethiopian culture and gave Ethiopians a sense of security and identity. In addition to widespread violence, the government attacked many religious and cultural institutions by prohibiting gatherings, suppressing religious practice and by enforcing a state ban on mourning – all of which was meant to destabilize Ethiopian society. One tradition that appears to have been unaffected by the regime was the Ethiopian coffee ceremony. This thesis examines why the coffee ceremony may have evaded the government’s radar as well as how it became a way for Ethiopians to cope with the social upheaval.
Matthew Alleyne Dodd, “The Empire of the Old Bailey Online: Why Zero Matters.” (2018)
Supervisor: Danielle Kinsey and Shawn Graham
- Matthew Alleyne Dodd Abstract
Can the methods of digital, quantitative analysis today be made to communicate with earlier eras of quantitative history? This thesis isolates one database and tests ways in which it can analyze its data to make a meaningful comparison with the quantitative analysis John Beattie performed in the 1980s on records from Surrey and Sussex. I am concerned with what we learn from this process. With certain caveats, a quantitative approach to the Old Bailey records does not generate findings for London that are significantly different than Beattie’s. Even if my current results are to accept the null hypothesis, the importance of “zero” in this case becomes that we now know where not to focus our research – not on looking for statistical difference in crime between these two areas in this period, instead focusing on qualitative data regarding the people who experienced crime in this historical context.
- Connie Gunn Abstract
This thesis examines the membership and work of the Women’s Canadian Historical Society of Ottawa from 1898 to 1932. Through commemorations, historical tableaux, exhibitions of artefacts, and the publication, Transactions, they participated in the construction of a nationalist and imperialist collective memory, celebrating connections to the British Empire, a mythologized settler past, and Ottawa’s evolution from lumber town to national capital. Analysis of the origins, class and ethnicity of the Society shows that French-Canadian participation fell and membership broadened as Ottawa became a government town. The thesis describes competition from the male-dominated Bytown Pioneer Association in 1923 over the commemoration of Colonel By, and it posits that the masculinization of the historical profession led the Society to abandon written accounts in Transactions, and focus upon the collection and display of artefacts in the Bytown Museum.
Natalie Belinda Hunter, “Making Connections, Imagining New Worlds: Women, Writing, and Resistance in Paris, 1897-1910” (2016).
Supervisor: Susan Whitney.
- Natalie Belinda Hunter Abstract
This thesis examines two groups of women who lived and wrote in fin-de-siècle Paris. Marguerite Durand and the contributors to La Fronde used their writing to invade the male sector of journalism and prove they were capable of doing what men could, but doing it for women and without any men involved. Natalie Barney and Renée Vivien used poetry and theatre to remake Sappho’s tradition in a way that prioritized her desire for women and her centrality to Lesbos’s community of women to challenge sexological discourses that posited their own desires as isolating and corrupt. These case studies, taken together for the first time, suggest new lines of historical inquiry into women and how they used different types of writing in resistance to normative discourses that restricted them and their lives in Paris between 1897 and 1910.
Evan Brent Jones, “Order and Emotion: The Rhetoric of Disgust in Peter the Venerable’s Adversus Iudaeos” (2016).
Supervisor: Marc Saurette.
- Evan Brent Jones Abstract
This thesis examines the definition of religious orthodoxy promulgated by Peter the Venerable in the Adversus Iudaeos, a twelfth-century anti-Judaic polemic. Scholars have thus far categorized this polemic as a typical and traditional guidebook designed to aid monks in the refutation of Jews using scripture, logical argumentation, and an engagement with post-biblical Jewish holy text (and in this case, the Talmud). Despite this categorization, scholars have neglected to discuss the role of emotions in categorizing Judaism. I argue that Peter uses the emotional rhetoric of disgust to alter the traditional polemical purpose ascribed to it. When Peter compares Jews to “useless vomit”, he suggests that a Jewish way of thinking is filthy and worthy of disgust. These acts allow Peter the ability to unify and define his own version of Christian thought, and contrast it with the framework of thinking adopted by his rival monastic group, the Cistercians.
- Jenn Ko Abstract
In this essay and documentary film, I explore the notion of “Chineseness” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) through the lived experiences of Chinese diaspora in Hong Kong and the Greater Toronto Area. I conducted an oral history project with eight individuals who shared their perceptions and memories of TCM. I interpret their stories through the theoretical frameworks of diaspora, affect, and performance, and situate them within the translocal history of TCM from China to its cultural peripheries. I argue that Chineseness emerges in liminal spaces and is narrated and negotiated in uneven and sometimes contradictory ways and explore ways TCM inscribes and transmits cultural knowledge in family. This inquiry has implications for policymakers and change makers who are able to integrate cross-cultural perceptions and practices into private and public healthcare systems in Ontario.
Philip Michael Lamancusa, “The Canadian War Museum’s 1812: A Question of Perspective.” (2019)
Supervisors: Norman Hillmer and Andrew Burtch
- Philip Michael Lamancusa Abstract
This thesis focuses on the “Four Wars of 1812,” or simply 1812, exhibit produced by the Canadian War Museum (CWM) in Ottawa, open to the general public from 13 June 2012 to 6 January 2013. An investigation of museum documents, academic literature and news media, viewer feedback, and interviews with museum staff involved with the project has been conducted. Examined here are exhibit development, approach, and content, as well as public responses to the exhibit, government policy, museum practice, and a national conversation about war and peace in the context of the Bicentennial of the War of 1812. The thesis concludes that the CWM successfully walked a tightrope, aware of but avoiding politics and controversy while appealing to a wide audience and fulfilling the museum’s responsibilities to stakeholders and scholarship.
Theresa LeBane, “Three Catholic Congregations in a Nineteenth-Century Canadian City: Providing Social Services, Claiming Space for Women in Kingston, 1841-1874.’ (2018)
Supervisor: Susan Whitney
- Theresa LeBane Abstract
This thesis examines three Roman Catholic congregations of women, the Congregation de Notre-Dame, the Religious Hospitallers of Saint Joseph, and the Sisters of Providence, and the services they provided between 1841 and 1874 in Kingston, Canada West and Ontario. A careful reading of the personal written records of Kingston’s women religious, informed by gender analysis, reveals their role in the building of hospitals, schools, and orphanages, and their dedication to bettering the lives of the disadvantaged and indigent. These contributions aligned with the larger goals of the provincial government and ecclesiastical authorities. Kingston’s women religious established multiple institutions, faced unspeakable risks to their health, and overcame overt anti-Catholicism in carrying out and expanding the city’s social services.
Ronald John Martini, “The Reconfiguration of Eighteenth-Century Scottish Historiography: Dialogues Between the Present and the Past” (2016).
Supervisor: Mark Phillips.
- Ronald John Martini Abstract
Changes occurred to the writing of History in eighteenth-century Scotland. Dissatisfied with traditional historical priorities, eighteenth-century Scottish historians changed the focus of their writing to reflect what they felt was more relevant to contemporary sensibilities, giving new importance to the social aspects of daily life, the inward life of the sentiments, and the history of manners. The long-standing historiographical model of the classical tradition, which had given precedence to the history of kings, public affairs and the political, gave way to a variety of new historical genres. This refocusing of historiographical emphasis was a response to a vibrant commercial society, to the era’s social interests, to the period’s predilection for delicate sensibilities and refined feelings, and to a burgeoning middle class.
One of these new genres of historical writing was called conjectural history. A uniquely inventive eighteenth-century discursive form, conjectural history was unlike traditional history in methodology, and was differentiated by its ability to surmount traditional history’s intrinsic boundaries. Conjectural history inferred and speculated, as it strove to better understand the fundamental principles of human nature. Based on these changes to historical writing, this study asks a methodological question, and it looks at several different examples of the various historical genres being written at this time.
Angus McCabe, “Canada’s Response to the 1968 Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia: An Assessment of the Trudeau Government’s First International Crisis.” (2019)
Supervisor: Norman Hillmer
- Angus McCabe Abstract
The new government of Pierre Trudeau was faced with an international crisis when, on 20 August 1968, the Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia. This study is the first full account of the Canadian government’s response based on an examination of the archival records of the Departments of External Affairs, National Defence, Manpower and Immigration, and the Privy Council Office. Underlying the government’s reaction were differences of opinion about Canada’s approach to the Cold War, its role at the United Nations and in NATO, the utility of the Department of External Affairs, and decisions about refugees. There was a delusory quality to each of these perspectives. In the end, an inexperienced government failed to heed some of the more competent advice it received concerning how best to meet Canada’s interests during the crisis. National interest was an understandable objective, but in this case, it was pursued at Czechoslovakia’s expense.
Natalie Sujae McCloskey, “Isabella Bird: An Argument for Mobility and a Changed Definition of New Womanhood” (2017).
Supervisor: Danielle Kinsey.
- Natalie Sujae McCloskey Abstract
I argue that mobility and ideas of New Womanhood were mutually constitutive by the late nineteenth century onwards. Through Isabella Bird’s writing and biographies, I find that she, and by extension others of the fin-de-siècle, connected mobility with Christianity and modernity in a Western imperialist context. Her biographers are discussed as representatives of each generation’s feminist view of New Women. I focus on Bird’s writing about Korea, where she advocated missionaries and views on race and Orientalism in ways that were not simply echoes of contemporary British jingoist ideas. For example, she concluded that Russia should take over Korea after the First Sino-Japanese War. Studying Bird reevaluates and historicizes the definition of New Womanhood by emphasizing how privileges of mobility and Christian missionizing were assumptions built into fin-de-siècle writing by “New Women,” despite how late thinkers characterized them as secular progressives, like the feminist movement.
Paige McDonald, “If Japan Should Attack: Perceptions of Fear and Threat in British Columbia’s Newspapers, 1941-1943” (2016).
Supervisor: Norman Hillmer.
- Paige McDonald Abstract
From 1941 to 1943, incidents in the Pacific theatre of the Second World War seemed to bring the conflict closer and closer to the shores of British Columbia. Anxieties about a potential Japanese attack began to grow. British Columbia’s newspapers discussed fear and anxiety through their articles, editorials and opinion pieces, bringing together the thoughts and words of Canada’s military and government officials, and the writers and readers of the newspapers. The newspaper pieces dealing with the potential threat appeared most frequently surrounding major events in the Pacific, notably the attack on Pearl Harbor, the shelling of Estevan Point, and the Japanese occupation of the Aleutian Islands. Fear and threat were presented, debated, and reshaped within these newspaper communities. As the nature of the Japanese threat evolved with each major incident in the Pacific, so too did the discussions of fear.
Renee Elaine McFarlane, “Conflict and Conservation: A Human History of Animals in Gatineau Park, 1938-1958” (2016).
Supervisor: Joanna Dean.
- Renee Elaine McFarlane Abstract
This thesis explores the shifting human perceptions of wildlife in Gatineau Park, Quebec, from 1938 to 1958, and argues that these views came into conflict with the actual animals that roamed there. It draws upon records of the Federal District Commission, animal studies methodology, and naturalists’ field observations to demonstrate that non-human animals, as much as human animals, shaped the conservation practices that developed in the park. White-tailed deer and their predators frustrated attempts to order and classify them as they transgressed physical and conceptual boundaries: deer were domesticated, farm dogs went wild, and “brush wolves” challenged taxonomic boundaries by breeding with coyotes. Upon their reintroduction beavers “destroyed” park landscapes, defying Grey Owl’s construction of the beaver as a symbol of wildlife conservation. These encounters with animals challenged the expectations of rural residents, park visitors, and the Ottawa Ski Club who called for the removal of troublesome beavers and wolves.
Matthew Joseph Moore, ““The Kiss of Death Bestowed with Gratitude”: The Postwar Treatment of Canada’s Second World War Merchant Navy, Redress, and the Negotiation of Veteran Identity” (2016).
Supervisors: John Walsh and Tim Cook.
- Matthew Joseph Moore Abstract
This thesis focuses on the Merchant Navy’s redress campaign and appraises shifting government attitudes towards the mariners in veterans’ legislation. It traces the wartime experience of the mariners and discusses their postwar treatment. By examining the factors that contributed to the mariners’ initial exclusion as veterans, this study sheds light on the complex process whereby the state evaluates and then reassesses what is owed to those who serve. It demonstrates that concepts of “veteranhood” are fluid, and, that in the case of the Merchant Navy, once neglected wartime narratives can be reincorporated into the nation’s military past. In the case of the Merchant Navy, renewed public engagement with Canada’s social memory of its involvement in two world wars helped the merchant seamen find an audience willing to validate their claims. This study of Merchant Navy redress serves as an exploration into the nature of the state-veteran relationship.
Andrew Narraway, “Settler Colonial Power and Indigenous Survival: Hockey Programs at Three Indian Residential Schools in Northwestern Ontario and Manitoba, 1929-1969.” (2018)
Supervisor: Michel Hogue
- Andrew Narraway Abstract
Despite the growing national interest and body of literature concerning the Indian Residential School System, there has been little acknowledgement of the history of hockey within these schools. This thesis is an examination of hockey programs at three Protestant-run Indian residential schools in northwestern Ontario and western Manitoba during the middle of the twentieth century. By using church and government documents, this study highlights the complex relationship between settler colonialism, sport, and Indigenous survival. It reveals that while hockey was implemented into residential school curriculum as a means of assimilation, public relations, and eventually integration, it was also a space of negotiation, entertainment, identity, and even survival for Indigenous children within these schools. Microlevel decisions and effects greatly influenced the advancement of hockey from a local-level disciplinary technique to a federally mandated aspect of Indian education.
Hollis Jack Beaumont Peirce, “Academic Accessibility: A Case Study of Carleton University, 1942 – 2019.” (2019)
Supervisor: Shawn Graham
- Hollis Jack Beaumont Peirce Abstract
This thesis was completed in order to analyze how Carleton University has viewed accessibility during its history. It will do so by using two theoretical perspectives of disability, the medical and social models. They will be used to demonstrate how Carleton University has gone about building not only its physical infrastructure but also policy for its intellectual infrastructure under influence of the medical model. It first looks at how Carleton built its reputation of being one of Canada’s most accessible post secondary institutions. To understand this a number of different sources were put to use. Along with standard secondary sources, such as books and journal articles, this thesis also contains a series of interviews, an accessibility audit, and personal vignettes. These interviews and vignettes are excellent tools to demonstrate how Carleton has shifted its focus of accessibility away from physical and towards cognitive disabilities.
Alisha Seguin, “Remembering the Civil Service: Work and Life Stories of Indigenous Labourers in the Canadian Federal Civil Service” (2015).
Supervisor: John Walsh.
- Alisha Seguin Abstract
This thesis examines the memories and experiences of six Indigenous civil servants who worked in the Canadian federal public service from the late 1960s until today. Special attention has been paid to the role of identity; these women and men mediated their cultural identities as Indigenous peoples with their economic identities as federal civil servants. To contextualize these lived experiences, this thesis also explores the development of a culture of merit, representation, and employment equity within the federal civil service in the mid to late twentieth century. As an oral history study, this thesis takes on a very personal note because each research partner narrates their stories of work within the frame of an entire life lived. This has allowed for anunderstanding of not only the perceptions of each narrator regarding the civil service as a place of employment, but also the role and meaning of this work within each individual life as a whole. As a result, this thesis argues that the complexity of individual experiences, identity formation, and memory makes it difficult to generalize about “the Indigenous civil servant” in anymeaningful way. Relatedly, this thesis also emphasizes both the enriching possibilities and the unique challenges of conducting life story oral interviews and “sharing authority” incollaborative research projects.
Evan Sidebottom, “The Man Who Could Go Either Way: The Many Faces of Cowboy Masculinity in 1950s American Film and Advertising” (2016).
Supervisor: Andrew Johnston.
Thomas Sloss, “Danger, Deviancy, and Desire in Apartheid South Africa: Visualizing an Exchange of Transnational Homoerotic Commodities.” (2019)
Supervisors: Danielle Kinsey and Jennifer Evans
- Thomas Sloss Abstract
This thesis demonstrates that legislation introduced by the National Party of South Africa between 1950 and 1988 was ineffective in subduing the exchange of homoerotic commodities. Ultimately, the quantitative and qualitative methodology used in this thesis reveals that despite increased regulation, some same-sex desiring men in South Africa had the means to participate in a transnational network of exchange. This transient network of commodities and images created a community beyond borders and boundaries that resisted regulation and created a space for like-minded individuals to communicate.
Methodologically, this thesis is a composite of macro- and micro-history that navigates contentious issues with cultural history and simultaneously addresses some limitations of visualizing data in this manner. Collections from the Gay and Lesbian Memory in Action (GALA) archive in Johannesburg, South Africa are digitized and processed to visualize two different commodity networks (http://dangerdeviancyanddesire.com). Associated correspondence, editorials, newspaper clippings, and oral histories corroborate these visualizations.
Andrew Sopko, “An (Im)Balance of Expectations: Civil Defence in Ottawa, 1951-1962” (2015).
Supervisor: Norman Hillmer.
- Andrew Sopko Abstract
Throughout the Cold War, the world lived with the fear that international tensions might lead to the outbreak of a devastating nuclear conflict. This fear drove Canadian policy makers to pursue civil defence, which entailed the organization of local communities and patriotic citizens to assist with the defence of their country by preparing for a nuclear conflict. Ottawa, as the national capital, was a possible target of a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. From 1950-1962, the high watermark of civil defence, the city uneasily managed to reconcile the competing interests of stakeholders and the public with its civic responsibilities, evolving circumstances, and changeable federal policies. In the end, however, municipal squabbling pushed balance over the line into imbalance, and Ottawa’s civil defence program came crashing down.
Ann Walton, “Studying the Art of Growing Old with Metchnikoff, Hauser, Lowman, and Thompson: Advice about Aging, 1900-1960” (2016).
Supervisor: B. McKillop.
- Ann Walton Abstract
This work explores shifting attitudes about aging in the first half of the twentieth century by tracing the rise of four figures, and by examining discussions that surrounded their work on aging in the press. Bacteriologist Élie Metchnikoff, food scientist Gayelord Hauser, and advice columnists Josephine Lowman and Elizabeth Thompson were seen as authorities on their subjects and wrote during a period of significant change: increased longevity, the advent of retirement, and growing scientific interest in aging produced a plethora of press discussion that plunged into the “problem” of old age. Their ‘prescriptions’ captivated attention in both Canada and the United States, illustrating the growing search for management and improvement that dominated discussions of aging. It is argued that while aging became the specialization of experts who studied it objectively, popular messages relayed that there was an “art” to growing old, its success determined by preparation, attitude, and personal will.
Ian Leonard Weatherall, “Canada’s Defence Policies, 1987-1993: NATO, Operational Viability, and the Good Ally: (2017).
Supervisor: Norman Hillmer.
- Ian Leonard Weatherall Abstract
This thesis uses documents from the Department of Defence and the Department of External Affairs to analyze the 1987 White Paper on Defence and the changes in defence priorities in the period 1987-1993. The purpose of the White Paper was to improve the functionality of Canada’s military, offer a full commitment to NATO, and portray Canada as a good ally. The end of the Cold War in 1989-1991 and a deep recession from 1989-1992 forced the government to reduce the military budget, and the White Paper policies never reached fruition. Canada’s NATO allies valued Canada’s forces in Europe, and the government was initially willing to fund a Task Force in Europe. The decision in 1992 to cancel the Task Force and focus on the core capabilities of the military damaged Canada-NATO relations, but Canada continued to be a contributing member of the alliance and a player in European security.
Alex Philip Wilkinson Cruddas, “The Future in Stone: Architecture as Expression of National Socialist Temporality” (2016).
Supervisor: Jennifer Evans.
- Alex Philip Wilkinson Cruddas Abstract
Working alongside Adolf Hitler, architect Albert Speer pioneered his theory of Ruinenwert, or “ruin value”, which was employed in the design of monumental architectural projects. These structures were designed to evoke imagery of the Nazi’s contemporary power and ideology and were created to function as lieux de mémoire (“places of memory”) for subsequent generations of Aryans, providing heroic ruins for a future audience imagined as both bearers of the regime’s cultural legacy and witness to its destruction. The regime itself was understood to possess the contradictory qualities of the eternal and terminal, and its architecture was to reflect this. Little attention has been given to contextualizing the architecture of temporality National Socialism within the regime’s greater culture of future-mindedness. This work seeks to establish connections between existing discussions of National Socialist architectural futurity and those that explore the regime’s fascination with its own future more broadly.
Melissa Diane Armstrong, “The ANC’s Medical Trial Run: the Anti-Apartheid Medical Service in Exile, 1964-1990” (2017).
Supervisor: Susanne Klausen.
- Melissa Diane Armstrong Abstract
South Africa’s current ruling African National Congress (ANC) government inherited a relatively well-developed healthcare system that was steeped in institutionalised racism. The apartheid era created the conditions for poor health and provided poor healthcare for black South Africans. However, little research has been done on the history of health and healthcare provision for the South Africans who were exiled by the National Party in 1960 and more specifically on the medical sector developed by the ANC for exiles in civilian settlements and military camps based in newly independent, sympathetic nation-states in southern Africa. The exiled South Africans were affected by the legacy of colonialism, exposed to the repression of apartheid and were subject to the first efforts of the ANC’s medical sector and (eventual) Health Department while they were in exile. Indeed, many health professionals who filled leadership positions in the post-apartheid Department of Health were trained in exile and had been a part of the medical sector in the liberation struggle during some portion of the thirty-year period that the ANC was in exile. This medical sector formed in exile is the subject of this dissertation.
The history of the ANC’s medical sector in exile sheds new light on the importance of health to the international legitimacy of the ANC but also to the individuals whose lives were at risk in exile. Moreover, it begins to show that the Department of Health was also a product of apartheid in the sense that it emerged as a political response to the inequalities in South Africa and was forced to contend with exiles that had been damaged by the South African system. Attempts to understand the post-apartheid National Department of Health in South Africa must first contend with this history of health and healthcare in exile.
Naomi Alisa Calnitsky, “Harvest Histories: A Social History of Mexican Farm Workers in Canada since 1974” (2017).
- Naomi Alisa Calnitsky Abstract
While concerns and debates about an increased presence of non-citizen guest workers in agriculture in Canada have only more recently begun to enter the public arena, this dissertation probes how migrant agricultural workers have occupied a longer and more complex place in Canadian history than most Canadians may approximate. It explores the historical precedents of seasonal farm labour in Canada through the lens of the interior or the personal on the one hand, through an oral history approach, and the external or the structural on the other, in dialogue with existing scholarship and through a critical assessment of the archive. Specifically, it considers the evolution of seasonal farm work in Manitoba and British Columbia, and traces the eventual rise of an “offshore” labour scheme as a dominant model for agriculture at a national scale.
Taking 1974 as a point of departure for the study of circular farm labour migration between Mexico and Canada, the study revisits questions surrounding Canadian views of what constitutes the ideal or injurious migrant worker, to ask critical questions about how managed farm labour migration schemes evolved in Canadian history. In addition, the dissertation explores how Mexican farm workers’ migration to Canada since 1974 formed a part of a wider and extended world of Mexican migration, and seeks to record and celebrate Mexican contributions to modern Canadian agriculture in historical contexts involving diverse actors. In exploring the contexts that have driven Mexican out-migration and transnational integration, it bridges oral accounts with a broader history that sets Mexican northward migration in hemispheric context. It reads agricultural migration upon various planes, including corporeality, experience, identity, masculinity, legality, “contra-modernity,” and the management of mobilities.
Andriata Chironda, “Narrators, Navigators and Negotiators: Foreign Service Officer Life Stories from Canada’s Africa Refugee Resettlement Program, 1970 to 1990.” (2020)
Supervisor: James Milner and Dominique Marshall
- Andriata Chironda Abstract
This dissertation critically examines the life stories of three Canadian Foreign Service officers, in order to tell a history about how officers “heard” and decided on the claims of refugee applicants who sought admission and resettlement to Canada through its Africa Refugee Program from the early 1970s to 1990. This period and area
of focus allow the study to explore the relationship between officers’ individual agency and structure in the implementation of Canadian refugee policy, and to present a hitherto under-represented part of Canada’s immigration history.
The research argues that the context and conditions of refugee selection can be more fully understood by explaining: the material and ideational structures within which the officers (hearers) navigated; the many types of relationships they negotiated; and the narratives they created, both about themselves and about their
role in refugee selection. The history contained in this thesis does not claim to present the truth of officers’ accounts or present theirs as the sole perspective, but instead makes an argument rooted in the literature that could be generalized beyond the context of the dissertation through further research. For this purpose, this work conceptualizes the officers as “narrators” (past and present), “navigators” and “negotiators.”
The dissertation is situated within the Historical literature on oral history, immigration to Canada, and the interdisciplinary study of the management of migration and refugee movements. It draws on substantive oral history interviews the author conducted with the three officers who were active in East-Africa between 1970
and 1990. In order to situate these life stories within the prevailing state structures of the time, the research draws on primary sources, including Government of Canada policy documents, the 1976 Immigration Act, Annual Reports to Parliament on Immigration Levels Plans and Ministry of Employment and Immigration Statistics.
This work argues that, notwithstanding limitations on their autonomy, the degree and nature of discretion and agency that officers could exercise varied depending on the local context of implementation and particularities of the refugee applicant or situation. Together, the life stories reflect a collective narrative about the settings, conditions, constraints and interests that shaped how the officers “heard” refugee applicant stories while they implemented Canada’s humanitarian and resettlement policy through the Africa Refugee Program in its earliest and formative years. The life stories put a human face on complex bureaucratic processes, and demonstrate that individual agency matters and affects outcomes in policy implementation and, occasionally, subsequent policy development.
Christine Chisholm, “Life After the Scandal: Thalidomide, Family, and Rehabilitation in Modern Canada, 1958-1990.” (2019)
Supervisor: Susanne M. Klausen
- Christine Chisholm Abstract
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the drug thalidomide was prescribed to pregnant women around the world as a sedative to combat morning sickness. Instead of being “completely safe,” as advertisements had promised, thalidomide caused “deformities” in children born to mothers who took the drug. In Canada thalidomide was licensed for prescription use on April 1, 1961 and remained on the market until the spring of 1962, despite knowledge of the possible connection between the medication and birth defects in newborns. This dissertation focuses on thalidomers’ lives after the scandal. It argues that in Canada, thalidomiders’ experiences in the aftermath of the tragedy demonstrate that their disabled bodies remained political and public bodies, even in the most intimate and private aspects of their lives. Drawing on disability history and medical history, this dissertation extends the approach of patient histories to include thalidomiders’ social
lives and disability as a lived experience. Because disability is always political, this case study of thalidomiders in Canada builds on the feminist critique of a public/private dichotomy and suggests that people living with disabilities do not simply blur but always transgress the public/private divide. Through an examination of rehabilitation, school, families, sexuality and reproduction, this dissertation demonstrates that thalidomiders’ lives were political as they, both inadvertently and intentionally, confronted notions of normality and engendered the limits of socially-prescribed norms. In addition, their very existence challenged ideas of humanness and belonging, and their lives were defined by their conscious and subconscious resistance to notions of abject bodies. Canadian thalidomiders have challenged the cultural importance of physical
“normality” in Canada through everyday performances, and counteracted deep-seated fears of difference and “the abnormal” through their presence in communities. This dissertation is the first study to use oral history methodology to bring the voices of Canadian thalidomiders to the attention of scholars.
Sean Eedy, “Comic Books and Culture in the German Democratic Republic, 1955-1990: Between Constructions of Power and Childhood.” (2016)
Supervisor: Jennifer Evans.
- Sean Eedy Abstract
In 1955, the East German Socialist Unity Party issued the Regulations for the Protection of Youth as a means of controlling publications for children and young people coming across the relatively open German-German border. At the same time, the regime authorized the creation of socialist comics in order to fill the gaps these regulations left in children’s entertainment. However, as socialist alternatives to the perceived trash and filth represented by western comics and American influence, these East German comics were employed as extensions of the regime’s education system, delivering the state’s ideology in its efforts to develop the socialist personality among youth and generate genuine enthusiasm for the construction of state-socialism. Just as these comics organized children’s activities and leisure time, they were taken up and read by East German children who made their own meanings of the publications’ contents. As much as these comics were meant to fulfill the state’s ideological agendas and foster the spirit of socialism within these readers, the children themselves understood comics in terms of the perceived freedoms they allowed. As such, children projected their own desires, interests, and tastes upon these publications. These expectations limited the range of actions available to the regime for drawing these readers into participation with socialism and the SED-state.
This dissertation approaches the subject of comics in the German Democratic Republic as constructions of state power and, in keeping with Foucault’s governmentality thesis, as levers of power that allowed for the perpetuation of SED control. As children understood comics in ways different from the regime, comics are also examined in terms of Jürgen Habermas’ critical public sphere insofar as they provided space for child-readers to make their own sense of the SED-state and the society around them despite these constructions of power. To this end, this dissertation examines archival records of the GDR youth groups and issues of Verlag Junge Welt’s comics and children’s magazines. This study argues that GDR comics were constructions of the regime’s power at the same time that they provided fantasies of empowerment, escapism, and constructive of the experience of childhood under socialism.
Jane Elizabeth Cooper Freeland, “Behind Closed Doors: Domestic Violence, Citizenship and State-Making in Divided Berlin, 1969-1990” (2016).
Supervisor: Jennifer Evans.
- Jane Elizabeth Cooper Freeland Abstract
This dissertation investigates the approaches taken to address domestic violence in East and West Berlin between 1969 and 1990. Both Germanys created a language to define domestic violence, which not only reflected and reinforced their self-definition as liberal or socialist states, but did so in a way that had important consequences for women and marginalized communities. Indeed, the contested interactions between the state, activists and citizens in responding to gender violence often centred on competing ideas on the role of gender and gender equality in society.
Through an analysis of official state and grassroots responses to domestic violence, this dissertation argues that in addressing these forms of violence, competing visions of citizenship were negotiated by politicians, everyday Germans and activists alike. Although official efforts often only solidified normative heteropatriarchal visions of gender relationships, activists from either side of the Berlin Wall used citizenship as a standpoint to critique the state for failing to protect women from violence. Despite different levels of support available to women living with abusive partners in East and West, women across Germany were primarily responsible for tackling domestic violence and fomenting everyday gender equality. Placing the stories of East and West together then, makes these historically constituted processes of women’s marginalization visible, highlighting the similarities that existed across the Berlin Wall, despite very different political systems.
This research, one of the first in depth historical examinations of domestic violence in Germany, sheds light on the role of gender in the postwar processes of state-making in East and West by examining how domestic abuse was addressed and discussed at the state level, by feminist activists and by citizens, critically looking at how this impacted women’s lives and their ability to leave a violent partner. This not only provides insight into how women’s voices are heard within and by the state, but it also draws our attention to the way violence works to create and reinforce gendered forms of citizenship.
- Sarah Hogenbirk Abstract
This dissertation inserts servicewomen into military history and women’s and gender history by analyzing how women voiced their place in the Canadian military between 1938 and 1966. It studies how women negotiated the conditions of their service during the Second World War, resisted demobilization in 1946, and shaped the terms on which women entered the forces permanently in 1966. Drawing on official texts, unofficial histories, and personal scrapbooks, the thesis identifies the voices of women who pursued military careers and makes three arguments. First, women have actively negotiated with defence officials for a place in the armed services in war and peace. Second, servicewomen have adopted a perspective that went beyond the war in their plans for future service and their reflections on past service. Third, servicewomen crafted their legacies and pushed for recognition of female military expertise. The thesis moves beyond Ruth Roach Pierson’s pioneering work on women in the Second World War to consider women’s long-term identifications with the forces.
Chapter one covers the establishment of the wartime women’s services. Chapter two studies wartime debates over alcohol and sexual (im)morality. Chapter three analyzes reports on the future of women in the forces written in 1946 by Acting Captain Adelaide Sinclair, Lieutenant-Colonel Daisy Royal, and an unnamed senior member of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Chapter four examines women’s continued participation in the military community through veteran’s organizations and cadet groups, and discussions over their place in the armed services between 1946 and 1955. Chapter five concentrates on a 1965 study recommending a permanent place for women in the services. Chapter six explores how servicewomen narrated their histories in scrapbooks and unofficial histories.
The research answers Cynthia Enloe’s appeal to listen carefully to women inside the military, and identifies ways women’s voices have been silenced, by both defence officials and scholars. The thesis highlights the military as a site of feminism, linking paramilitary women, servicewomen, veteran’s organizations, and cadets. Studying women’s negotiation of their military roles and their history reveals the policing of gender norms in the armed services, Canadian society, and the scholarship of the Second World War.
Emmanuel Hogg, “Kicking Through the Wall:Football, Division, and Entanglement in Postwar Berlin” (2017).
Supervisor: Jennifer Evans.
- Emmanuel Hogg Abstract
Seldom is the German capital referred to as a “Fußballstadt” (“football-city”). When Berlin and football are mentioned together, themes of corruption, hooliganism, the Stasi, and scandal dominate. And yet, Berlin holds a rich footballing history that dates back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and has long played an important role in the lives of Berliners as spaces for sociability.
In the postwar period, two divergent states emerged, each with their own competing structures of football. Whereas in the Federal Republic football remained an autonomous but not apolitical space, it was explicitly politicized in East Germany. As an important form of “soft power” during the Cold War, the people’s game reveals the extent to which the Iron Curtain was much more porous and elastic than the imagery of the Berlin Wall suggests. Rather than view football as “war without the fighting”, a microcosm that interprets the German and Cold War past as simplistic, reductive, and dichotomous, this dissertation analyzes the sport’s inherent dynamism that presented Berliners on both sides of the Wall with unique spaces for social interaction.
Although both German states tried to use the sport to assert their own interests, this dissertation argues that football simultaneously provided fans with a relatively free space authorities could not effectively control, opening the opportunity for German-German interactions. Revealing these spaces of German entanglement provides a nuanced interpretation for the ways division was experienced, constructed, and negotiated during the Cold War and after the Wende.
Nicholas Hrynyk, ““Pin the Macho on the Man”: Mediations of Gay Male Masculinity in ‘The Body Politic’, 1971-1987.” (2018)
Supervisor: James Opp and Patrizia Gentile
- Nicholas Hrynyk Abstract
As the largest Canadian gay and lesbian newspaper from 1971 to 1987, The Body Politic not only shaped the political landscape of gay liberation but also mediated understandings and assumptions around gay male masculinity. The editorial collective behind The Body Politic addressed masculinity in myriad ways, sometimes directly in editorials on gender and sexuality, but more often indirectly as part of discussions around race, desire, the body, space, and HIV/AIDS. In doing so, The Body Politic served an important role in mediating the gendered, racial, sexual, and spatial politics of desire and identity in Toronto’s gay male community. The newspaper was an important interactive platform for collective members and readers alike to explore and express apprehensions around heteronormative, ableist, and racial influences on gay male masculinity as a performative style.
This dissertation thematically examines masculinity in The Body Politic. Each chapter focuses on a different topic: pornography and visual culture, the hypersexualized white able-bodied “macho clone,” the navigation of space and place, the inscription of colonial values of effeminancy or hypermasculinity on racialized bodies, and the marginalization of disabled bodies and bodies debilitated by AIDS that did not “perform” a sexualized idea of masculinity. By visualizing gay masculinity in particular and often contradictory ways, The Body Politic reinforced and challenged the self-regulation of hegemonic masculinity in gay male culture. My analysis of The Body Politic reveals that not only were the aesthetics of gay male masculinity fundamental to the politics of desire and liberation within the gay male community, but that the newspaper played an important part in legitimizing and destabilizing these desires.
Joel Eugene Kropf, “Pursuing Human Techniques of Progressive Justice: The Ethical Assumptions of Early-to-Mid-Twentieth Century English-Canadian Penal Reformers” (2015).
Supervisor: B. McKillop.
- Joel Eugene Kropf Abstract
In all portions of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, at least a little of the commentary in Canada concerning criminal justice discussed reforms that might in some way make for a more promising genre of penal activity in the colony or country. This dissertation allows us to probe reformist commentary from the first two thirds of the twentieth century, primarily discourse between 1920 and the mid-1950s regarding imprisonment and parole-related measures pertaining to adult men. Scholarship on nineteenth- or twentieth-century reformist penal activity, or on social reform more generally, has often identified ways in which such activity proved quite consonant with more conservative assumptions or outcomes than would sit well with present-day progressive readers. My dissertation, by contrast, numbers among the studies which associate penal reformers’ outlook primarily with liberal or progressive perspectives. In this particular study, the liberal tenor of their mentality will register in our minds through an assessment of the ethical assumptions that reformers displayed, especially their assumptions concerning condemnation, exclusion, coercion, and compassion. Reformers’ speeches, publications, and so forth allow us to highlight four “moral sources” due to which they thought their penal perspective qualified as compelling: Christianity, the notion of humanness, the meritoriousness of technique, and the idea of justice. Their commentary assigned priority to technique-related rhetoric, to statements that associated penal activity, including rehabilitative tactics, with instrumentalist plans through which “the protection” with which the citizenry was enamoured would materialize. Yet even though reformers’ arguments savoured primarily of instrumentalist assumptions, neither justice nor compassion was wholly neglected in their discourse. In fact, reformers hit upon a defensible affirmation of quasi-compassionate ideas thanks to instrumentalist rhetoric itself.
Meghan Lundrigan, “Holocaust Memory and Visuality in the Age of Social Media.” (2019)
Supervisor: Jennifer Evans
- Meghan Lundrigan Abstract
Everyday people make use of Instagram to visually share their experiences encountering Holocaust memory. Whether individuals are sharing their photos from Auschwitz, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, or of the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, this dissertation uncovers the impetus to capture and share these images by the thousands. Using visuality as a framework for analyzing how the Holocaust has been seen, photographed, and communicated historically, this dissertation argues that these individual digital images function as objects of postmemory, contributing to and cultivating an accessible visual and digital archive. Sharing these images on Instagram results in a visual, grassroots archival space where networked Holocaust visuality and memory can flourish.
The Holocaust looms large in public memory. Drawing from Holocaust studies, public history, photography theory, and new media studies, this dissertation argues that the amateur Instagram image is far from static. Existing spaces of Holocaust memory create preconditions for everyday publics to share their encounters with the Holocaust on their own terms. Thus, the final networked Instagram image is the product of a series of author interventions, carefully wrought from competing narratives and Holocaust representations. The choice to photograph, edit, post, and hashtag one’s photo forges a public method for collaborating with hegemonic memory institutions. This work brings together seemingly disparate sources to find commonality between Instagram images, museum guestbook entries, online reviews, former concentration camps, and major Holocaust memorials and museums.
This research, one of the first studies of Holocaust visual culture on Instagram, underscores the fluidity of Holocaust memory in the twenty-first century. While amateur photography at solemn sites has sparked concern, this dissertation demonstrates that though the number of Holocaust survivors become fewer in number, the act of remembering the genocide can be coded into the everyday behaviour of the amateur photographers featured in this work. This work not only shares authority with everyday publics in their efforts to remember and memorialize the Holocaust but reminds us that seemingly small and individual acts of remembrance can coalesce, contributing to a fluid and accessible archive of visual memory.
James Allan Stuart MacKay, “Southern Heretics: The Republican Party in the Border South During the Civil War Era.” (2019)
Supervisor: James Miller
- James Allan Stuart MacKay Abstract
This dissertation examines the emergence and establishment of the Republican Party in the Border South slave states of Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri during the Civil War era. As regional and national tensions over slavery began to consume American political life, Frank Blair and other likeminded antislavery leaders attempted to build a Republican organization within the Border South. This dissertation argues that to become a viable political alternative, Republicans in the Border South developed a particular ideology of liberal political antislavery. This ideology promoted a message of white supremacy and free white labor, and reinforced a desire to see the economic progress of their states untrammeled by slavery. As a result, this ideology attracted enough antislavery men to form the only viable contingent of Republicans in the southern slave states.
This dissertation also argues for the political importance of Border South Republicans during the Civil War era. Despite being small in number, they played an outsized role in the political and strategic direction of the Republican Party. Border South Republican leaders took an active role in party formation, and influenced major political decisions made during the war. Furthermore, Republican policy concerning black civil and political rights during Reconstruction were often made with Border South Republican concerns in mind.
Taking a chronological approach to tell the story of the Republican Party in the Border South, this dissertation examines how the liberal political antislavery consensus was shattered by the Civil War. As emancipation, black civil rights, and disenfranchisement emerged as political issues during Reconstruction, Border South Republicans would find themselves struggling to reconcile their ideological goals with political reality.
Nicole Teresa Marion, “Canada’s Disarmers: The Complicated Struggle Against Nuclear Weapons, 1959-1963” (2017).
Supervisors: Norman Hillmer and Susan Whitney.
- Nicole Teresa Marion Abstract
This dissertation investigates the motivations, messages, and methods of Canadians who organized in opposition to nuclear weapons between 1959 and 1963. The efforts of Canadian anti-nuclear movements have been undervalued in histories of disarmament activism. Canadian disarmers have been dismissed as quiet in comparison to better-known movements in the United States and in Great Britain. This dissertation demonstrates that there were in fact complex and vigorous expressions of anti-nuclear sentiment in Cold War Canada. Canadian disarmers may have been few in number, and may have been conservative in their protest methods, but they were committed participants in an international struggle to protect humanity from the threat of nuclear war.
There were many Canadian movements in opposition to the Bomb, both organized and disorganized, which were shaped by the diverse relationships that disarmers had to the world around them. Disarmers’ endeavours were informed by engagements with feminisms, Western ideals of masculinity, parents’ desires to protect their children, young people’s hopes to inherit a world of peace and prosperity, longstanding ideas about social protest, concerns over domestic politics, and enthusiasm for international cooperation. Focusing on the various ways in which Canadians worked for disarmament in the early 1960s, this study demonstrates how much often divided and sometimes isolated disarmament organizations shared.
This dissertation is the first extended historical analysis of anti-nuclear efforts in Canada in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It is also a necessary revision of the existing historiography on disarmament activism. This dissertation brings together diverse literatures on Canada’s Sixties; American, British, and Western European disarmament and peace movements; connected social movements such as the New Left, feminist movements, and environmental movements; and histories of children and childhood. The thesis offers a reassessment of these movements and their importance to an understanding of Cold War social and political dynamics.
Mike McLaughlin, “Irish Catholic Voluntary Associations in the Canadian Liberal Order, 1840-1882” (2016).
Supervisor: Bruce Elliott.
- Mike McLaughlin Abstract
This study will explore the ways in which Irish Catholic voluntary associations engaged with the Canadian liberal order in the nineteenth century by focusing especially on three specific associations that were formed at particular times to confront particular social problems: temperance societies, the Catholic League, and Home Rule branches. Some of these organizations opposed liberalism and the liberal state, while others disseminated liberal values. Some, like temperance societies, did both. Informed by Ian McKay’s Liberal Order Framework, I have framed the Canadian context within which Irish Catholic voluntary associations functioned as a liberalizing society with a strong attachment to Protestant British identity. In studies focusing on state formation, democracy, and liberalism, scholars such as Alan Greer and Ian Radforth, Jeffrey McNairn, and Darren Ferry have positioned mainstream voluntary associations as having had a central role in the development of liberalism and the formation of the Canadian state. This study sets out to examine the extent to which Irish Catholic voluntary associations had a similar function.
Romalie Murphy, “Colonising Space and Producing Territory: John and Elizabeth Simcoe and Water, Power, and Empire in Upper Canada, 1791-1796.” (2019)
Supervisor: John Walsh
- Romalie Murphy Abstract
This dissertation examines how John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, and his wife, Elizabeth, manifested imperial expressions of power, sovereignty, security, and population within the new colony in the 1790s. There are also three chapters that focus on how territorial and route surveying played a critical role for both Simcoes, serving as a scientific foundation for reframing Upper Canada as a territory and a population. It does so by offering a re-examination of both their well-known private and public correspondence written in this decade, and also some select paintings and maps through which their ideas of governance and political and cultural visions were expressed. The dissertation’s reading and contextualisation of this archive is informed by Michel Foucault’s lectures on governmentality, critical cartographic histories, and imperial and colonial historiographies, all of which are brought into conversation with historical studies of Upper Canada.
There are two central arguments in this dissertation. First, it demonstrates the ways that the actions of both Simcoes were imperial in nature and were not directed towards the establishment of an independent Province. Towards this end, it reconsiders Elizabeth’s collection of writings as evidence of the ways that she embodied and administered imperial interpretations of power and knowledge as a faithful observer and cataloguer of the colony through scientific methods including cartography. Second, this dissertations argues that the Simcoes’ work in and about Upper Canada were expressions of an early modern imperial governmentality that predated and thus operated somewhat differently from the historiographically well-known liberal governmentality that emerged in Canada in the early-to-middle decades of the nineteenth century.
Dorothy-Jane Smith, “The Ottawa Valley Journal and The Modern Countryside: A City-Country Newspaper and The New Journalism in Eastern Ontario, 1887 to 1925.” (2018)
Supervisor: Bruce Elliott
- Dorothy-Jane Smith Abstract
Studies of the press as a modernizing agent in the first two decades of the twentieth century usually look at the mass media of the city dailies. I argue that the country edition of an Ottawa daily, the rural Journal, equally was a modernizing agent. It involved itself in the definition of expert knowledge at the agricultural fair, in demonstrating professional road-building to rural residents, and in mobilizing producers against the middlemen and “poor business practices” of the global cheese market. These stories give insight into how a city-run newspaper dressed itself in rural clothing while presenting a model of modernity.
In 1899 the newspaper was renamed from the Ottawa Semi-Weekly Journal to the Ottawa Valley Journal as a statement that it was a newspaper for rural residents. In 1917, it became the Ottawa Farm Journal with the intent of being a regional farm paper. But what made the rural Journal special was activism in the style of the 1890s urban New Journalism. The first two editors made news and not just reported it, but with differing approaches. Herbert Cowan was a city man who relied on the authority of experts for his initiatives. Robert Faith was a farm boy come to the city who saw himself as the voice of the farmer, following his own conscience on what was right.
The determination to be modern on their own terms led many of the readers to resist a hegemonic definition of modern based on technology and increased managerial government. They were interested in Cowan’s spectacles of modernity but did not alter their behaviour. They responded to Faith’s calls for mass protests as these expressed their ambivalence to “progress” and yet his “agitations” did not change rural conditions. Nonetheless, the rural Journal campaigns told readers that farm issues were important and affirmed readers’ aspiration to be modern as well as their unease over the resulting sense of disruption. In doing so, the newspaper helped keep alive a radical spirit in the countryside but it was a spirit which did not challenge the capitalist structures in which producers were enmeshed.
Sara Spike, “Modern Eyes: A Cultural History of Vision in Rural Nova Scotia, 1880-1910” (2016).
Supervisor: James Opp.
- Sara Spike Abstract
This dissertation explores a series of interconnected histories of vision and modernity in rural Nova Scotia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Approaching rural life and culture as a history of vision provides a new analytical lens for investigating the ways that rural people encountered, negotiated, and responded to the transformations being felt in both rural and urban places at the time. Informed by sensory history and visual culture studies, this unconventional perspective provides a coherent surface for cultural analysis across topics that are not traditionally discussed together, bringing to light and recuperating a variety of overlooked aspects of rural culture and knowledge. In their encounters with natural science, consumer culture, new technologies, and the Canadian state, rural Nova Scotians engaged in historically-specific practices of observation and articulated unique ideas about vision, which were frequently interlaced with ideas and anxieties about modernity. Chapters include analyses of nature-study and sensory training in rural elementary schools, practices of skilled vision at agricultural exhibitions, the professionalization of optometry in rural communities, the vision of sailors in relation to new maritime navigation infrastructure, and rural outreach from the Halifax School for the Blind. The result is a cultural history that places rural communities in Nova Scotia at the centre in of a conversation about modernity in Canada in the years bracketing the turn of the twentieth century.
Ian Wereley, “Imagining the Age of Oil: Case Studies in British Petrocultures, 1865-1935.” (2018)
Supervisor: Y.A. Bennett
- Ian Wereley Abstract
This dissertation investigates the cultural history of oil in Britain over a seventy-year period, between 1865 and 1935. While much has been written about the economic, political, diplomatic, geopolitical, and military aspects of oil during this timeframe, there have been few investigations into the ways that cultural factors have shaped the history of oil in Britain, a gap in the literature that this study seeks to fill. Britain was one of the first industrialized nations to make the transition to oil and in the period under consideration, everyday consumption of the commodity increased dramatically, especially in the cities, where new oil technologies for heating, illumination, and transportation became commonplace conveniences. Using understudied sources such as public lectures, cartoons, advertisements, exhibitions, and architecture, the dissertation examines the discourses of transition that were created to help Britons navigate their changing energy landscapes. It maps the complexities, opportunities, and impasses that accompanied the historical rise of oil in Britain during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and argues that the system of things that brought oil from the wellhead to the consumer was predicated on a vast constellation of ideas.
Christine Whitehouse, “‘You’ll Get Used to It!’: The Internment of Jewish Refugees in Canada, 1940–43” (2016).
Supervisors: Jennifer Evans and Rhonda Hinther.
- Christine Whitehouse Abstract
After the fall of France in 1940, when German invasion of the British Isles seemed imminent, some 2000 Jewish refugees from Nazi oppression were detained by the British Home Office as dangerous “enemy aliens” and sent to Canada to be interned for the duration of the war. While the British government admitted its mistake in interning the refugees within months of their arrest, the Canadian government continued to keep them behind barbed wire for up to three years, reflecting its administration’s anti-semitic immigration policies more broadly. Instead of using their case as a signpost in Canada’s liberalizing immigration history, this dissertation situates their story in a longer narrative of class and ethnic discrimination to show the troubling foundations of modern democracy. As one tool in the nation state’s normalizing project, incarceration attempted to mould the Jewish men in the state’s eye. How the refugees pushed back in a joint claim of selfhood forms the material basis of this study. Through their relationship with the spaces of internment, work and leisure, sexual desire and gender performance, and by protesting governmental power, the refugees’ identities evolved and coalesced, demonstrating the fluidity of modern selfhood despite the limiting power of nationhood. The internees’ evolving sense of self played a large role in their experience and the development of their collective postwar narrative which trumpets their own success in Canada; while the state differentiated them from its own citizenry, the Jewish refugees pushed back in order to be seen as valuable contributors to the national body. Consequently, their collective memory of internment as a continuation of that project and, finally, as evidence of its fulfillment constitutes a critical part of internment history. By broadening the framework of Jewish internment during WWII, a pattern of differing and detaining under the mores of modern democracy emerges.